Content1. What is Ba Jiao?
1.1 Morphological characteristics of Ba Jiao
1.2 Growth habit of Ba Jiao
1.3 Distribution area of Ba Jiao2. Value of Ba Jiao
3. Illicium verum health benefits
3.1 Ba Jiao side effect4. How to buy Ba Jiao?
What is Ba Jiao?
(star anise), (scientific name Illicium verum Hook. f.
) is a species of plant in the Magnoliaceae
family, genus Anise.Ba Jiao spice
is a tree with a tower-shaped, elliptical, or conical crown; bark dark gray; branches dense. Leaves untidily alternate, obovate-elliptic, oblanceolate, or elliptic; adaxial strigose fruit flowering in March-May, fruit ripening in September-October, spring strigose fruit flowering in August-October, fruit ripening in March-April of the following year; flowers pink to crimson, solitary in leaf axils or subterminal; fruit pedicels 20-56 mm long, aggregate fruit full and flat, follicles mostly 8, octagonal in shape.
The anise fruit
is a famous flavoring spice
and is also used for medicinal purposes. The peel, seeds, and leaves all contain aromatic oils, which are important raw materials for the manufacture of cosmetics, sweet spiced wine, beer, and the food industry.Star anise
, which is what we usually call Da Liao, generally has eight horns, with pure and thick petals, flat pointed corners, and an upward curved tip stalk, is the fruit of the star anise tree, an alias for star anise, a common seasoning that removes the stench from meat and makes it fragrant again, so it is called Ba Jiao Hui Xiang.
Morphological characteristics of Ba Jiao
Illicium verum tree usually tall 10-15m; crown tower-shaped, elliptic or conical; bark dark gray; branches dense.
Leaves of star anise plant are untidily alternate, in apical 3-6 sub whorled or loosely clustered, leathery, thickly leathery, obovate-elliptic, oblanceolate or elliptic, 5-15 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, apex cuspidate or shortly acuminate, base attenuates or cuneate; dense transparent oil spots visible in sunlight; midvein slightly concave above leaves, elevated below; petiole 8-20 mm.
Star anise flowers range in color from pink to crimson, solitary in leaf axils or subterminal, pedicels 15-40 mm long; tepals 7-12, often 10-11, often with inconspicuous translucent glandular dots, largest tepals broadly elliptic to broadly ovoid, 9-12 mm long and 8-12 mm wide; stamens 11-20, mostly 13 or 14, 1.8- 3.5 mm, filaments 0.5-1.6 mm long, connectives truncate, locules slightly raised, 1-1.5 mm long; carpels usually 8, sometimes 7 or 9, rarely 11, 2.5-4.5 mm long at anthesis, ovary 1.2-2 mm long, style subulate, longer than ovary.
The fruiting pedicels of star anise fruit are 20-56 mm long, aggregated, 3.5-4 cm in diameter, full and flat, follicles mostly 8, octagonal, 14-20 mm long, 7-12 mm wide, 3-6 mm thick, apex obtuse or bluntly pointed. The seeds of Ba Jiao are 7-10 mm long, 4-6 mm wide, and 2.5-3 mm thick.
Growth habit of Ba Jiao
Ba Jiao is a South Asian tropical trees species, like the warm winter and cool summer mountain climate, suitable for planting in deep, well-drained, fertile and moist, acidic sandy loam or loamy soil grows well; in dry and barren or low-lying waterlogged areas grow poorly.
The orthogonal brown fruit blooms in March-May and the fruit matures in September-October, while the spring brown fruit blooms in August-October and the fruit matures in March-April of the following year.
Distribution area of Ba Jiao
Ba Jiao is distributed in Southeast Asia and North America. Among them, Asia accounts for 80%. In Southeast Asia production areas, mainly in China, followed by Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sumatra in Indonesia, Kalimantan in the Philippines, and other regions and countries. Illicium verum in Americas are mainly distributed in Mexico, Haiti, and Florida in the United States. Star anise in China is mainly distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Zhejiang, Fujian, Taiwan, and other provinces and regions.
It is mainly produced in western and southern Guangxi, China (Baise, Nanning, Qinzhou, Wuzhou, Yulin, and other areas are mostly cultivated), at an altitude of 200-700 m, while the natural distribution can reach 1600 m above sea level. Guilin Yanshan (about 25°11′N) and Jiangxi Shangrao Steepwater Town (25°50′N) have been introduced, and normal flowering and fruiting. It is also grown in southern Fujian, western Guangdong, and southeastern and southern Yunnan.
Value of Ba Jiao
Ba Jiao Hui Xiang
The star anise plant generally grows in a moist, warm, and semi-shady environment, is an evergreen tree, a common plant up to 20 meters high, usually in the autumn and winter season to pick fruit, the picked fruit after drying reddish brown or yellowish brown. It can be used either directly or ground into a powder. Star anise is also used as a raw material for industrial perfumes, toothpaste, soaps, cosmetics, etc. It is also used in medicine as a wind repellent and stimulant.
Economic value of Ba Jiao
With the development of society, people pay more and more attention to the research and application of anise deep processing products to achieve greater value-added. 80s has developed and applied deep processing products such as anise brain, and anise essence, these products are widely used in food, spices, chemical, medicine, and other fields, such as cigarettes, mouthwash, soap, toothpaste, and other daily chemical products such as flavoring agents and insect repellents. Star anise can also be used for grain storage pest control, mixed with pine, wild perilla, polygonum, camphor leaves, and cyhalothrin to prepare grain storage pest control agent, on rice, corn, beans, and other grain and seed storage pests have ideal killing and repellent effect, the control effect of more than 95%, holding period of more than 8 months. It is also used in industry as an additive in cyanide-free electroplating.
The peel, seeds, and leaves all contain aromatic oils, and anise oil (aniseed oil for short) is an important raw material for the manufacture of cosmetics, sweet spiced wine, beer, and the food industry. In addition to domestic needs, star anise, and fennel oil are important export materials, and Chinese star anise accounts for more than 80% of the world market. Anise wood is light reddish brown to reddish brown, straight grain, fine structure, is light and soft, aromatic, and can be used for joinery, furniture, box board, and other timber.
Anise oil is a colorless or light-yellow liquid with a special odor of anise and a sweet taste. It condenses into a crystalline substance at about 15℃ and is soluble in ethanol and ether. Its main component is an aniseed brain, which contains 80%-90%, and contains acetaldehyde and other substances. Its use is mainly used for extracting aniseed brain, and preparing toothpaste flavoring and aromatizers for medicine, beverage, and food.
Food value of Ba Jiao
Star anise is a well-known flavoring spice with a sweet taste. Star anise fruit can be used directly in daily seasonings, such as stewing, boiling, pickling, brining, and soaking, or processed directly into five-spice seasoning powder. Anise oil and anise oleoresin are commonly used in meat products, condiments, soft drinks, cold beverages, confectionery, and in the food processing industry for pastries and baked goods. Anise oleoresin, like other spice oleoresins, has seen an increase in market consumption year by year and has gradually replaced the trend of spice raw materials.
Medicinal value of Ba Jiao
The dried mature fruit of Ba Jiao contains aromatic oils, fatty oils, proteins, resins, etc. The extract is anise oil, of which the seeds contain 1.7%-2.7% anise oil, and the dried fruit and dried leaves contain 12%-13% and 1.6%-1.8% anise oil, respectively. The main components of anise oil are anisole, anisaldehyde and acetylacetone, safrole, and watercressene.
Illicium verum health benefits
Ba Jiao is used for medicinal purposes and has the function of dispelling wind and regulating qi, harmonizing the stomach, and regulating the middle of the body, and is used for cold pain in the abdomen, cold and vomiting and bloating and stuffiness in the stomach. However, excessive consumption can damage the eyes and cause sores.
Star anise fruit has the functions of strengthening the stomach, expelling wind, analgesic, regulating the middle and Qi, dispelling cold and dampness, and treating indigestion and neurasthenia. With the continuous improvement of the level of new drug development, its use is expanding, and anise as raw material to extract the manganiferous acid can be synthesized into anti-cancer drugs and the production of anti-A or B influenza drugs. Dried star anise fruit contains 8%-13% mangiferin acid, which is the best natural plant raw material, except for poisonous star anise (manganiferous seed) content which is higher, and has not found a potential scale production value of the plant.
Ba Jiao side effect
Patients with yin deficiency and fire in the eyes and those with dry syndrome, menopausal syndrome, active tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, gout, diabetes, and heat are advised to eat less or even avoid it.
How to buy Ba Jiao?
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