What is Dong Chong Xia Cao?
Dong Chong Xia Cao
, scientifically known as Ophiocordyceps sinensis
, is a fungus of the family Nematodaceae and genus Nematoda.
Ovary annual, clavate, leathery when fresh, light yellow at the base, yellow-brown in the middle, dark brown at the top, up to 6 cm long, up to 2 mm in diameter; ascospores colorless, thick-walled, frequently separated, occasionally branched; ascospores threadlike, colorless, thin-walled, much separated when mature, size (118-)120-262(-270) µm × (4.5-)5-6(-6.5) micrometer. Dong Chong Xia Cao
can form complexes with bat moth larvae.Cordyceps Sinensis
is mostly born in alpine mountainous
areas at altitudes of 3000-4000 meters, mainly in the soil of grasslands, river valleys, and grasses. In China, it is mainly distributed in alpine zones and snowy grasslands in Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and other provinces (autonomous regions).Dong Chong Xia Cao
is a Chinese herb
unique to China. It is one of the three major tonic products along with ginseng and deer antler, which are recorded in ancient Chinese medical texts. Functions and Indications are: sweet, and flat. Tonifies the kidney benefits the lung, stops bleeding, and dissolves phlegm. Used for deficiency of kidney and essence, impotence and spermatorrhea, soreness of the waist and knees, prolonged cough and asthma, coughing, and hemoptysis.
Morphological characteristics of Dong Chong Xia Cao
Dong Chong Cao
|Substratum||Substratum annual, clavate, leathery when fresh, without special odor, light yellow at the base, yellowish brown at the middle, dark brown at the top, white inside, corky when dry, grayish brown to dark brown outside, smooth to slightly rough, white inside, up to 6 cm long and up to 2 mm in diameter.
|Ascospores||Ovary mycelium colorless, thick-walled, frequently separated, occasionally branched, regularly arranged, usually 3-6 microns in diameter, sometimes swollen up to 12 microns.
|Ascospores shell||At the top of the ascus, dark brown, shell mouth prominent, with a slightly pointed sterile apical part, base downy when young, downy when mature; ascospores cylindrical, colorless, with linear opening, containing 2 ascospores, size (175-)190-305(-312) µm × (7.5-)7.8-9.5(-10) µm.
|Spores||The ascospores are thread-like, colorless, thin-walled, and much separated when mature, with a size of (118-)120-262(-270) µm × (4.5-)5-6(-6.5) µm, average length L=204 µm, average width W=5.46 µm, and aspect ratio Q=37.3 (n=30/1).
|Complex||The fungus can form a complex with bat moth larvae. It consists of a worm body attached to a fungal ascus that grows from the head of the worm. The body resembles a silkworm, 3-5 cm long and 0.3-0.8 cm in diameter; the surface is dark yellow to yellowish brown, with 20-30 annular lines, the annular lines near the head are finer; the head is reddish brown, with 8 pairs of feet, the central 4 pairs are more obvious; the texture is brittle and easily broken, the section is slightly flat, yellowish white. The substratum slender cylindrical, 4-7 cm long, about 0.3 cm in diameter; surface dark brown to brown, with fine longitudinal wrinkles, the upper part is slightly inflated; texture pliable, cross-sectional whitish, fibrous. Smell slightly fishy, taste slightly bitter.
Growth habit of Dong Chong Xia Cao
The larvae of the host bat moth of Dong Chong Xia Cao encounter the ascospores of Cordyceps with the help of wind or rain, and are infested when the environmental conditions are suitable, the infested larvae move slowly and die near the surface in October at 2-9℃. From November to February, when the ground temperature is extremely low, the growth of ascospores is very slow or even stops; in May, when the temperature rises to 4-10℃ and the soil thaws, mycelium grows on the surface of the stagnant insects and adheres to the soil to form a membrane skin, and the ascospores grow rapidly upward to 20-50 mm rod-shaped ascospores. -In June and July, the head of the cotyledon gradually expands, and the ascospores mature and eject under suitable temperature, humidity and light, at which time, the subterranean stiletto rots, the cotyledon hollow, and the spores spread out to infect bat moth larvae again with wind and water. In the natural state, it takes about 3 years for Cordyceps to complete the asexual and sexual generations.
Dong Chong Xia Cao benefits
Cordyceps Dong Chong Xia Cao
Chemical composition of Dong Chong Xia Cao
a. Nucleotides: cordycepin, adenosine, uracil, etc.
b. Cordyceps polysaccharides: D mannitol (cordycepic acid).
c. Sterols: ergosterol, cholesterol, etc.; also contains crude protein, fat and fatty acid, vitamin B12, etc.
Cordyceps polysaccharides have immunomodulatory, hypoglycemic and antitumor effects; Cordycepin and other nucleotide components have antibacterial and antitumor effects.
Pharmacological effects of Dong Chong Xia Cao
a. Immunomodulation, Cordyceps polysaccharide has a bidirectional regulatory effect.
b. Cough suppression, expectorant and asthma, Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps mushroom diastolic bronchial effect is obvious.
c. Androgen-like effect, regulation restores sexual dysfunction in test male rats.
d. Antitumor, Cordyceps sinensis has inhibitory effects on primary foci of lung cancer and spontaneous lung metastasis and lymphoma in mice.
In addition, Dong Chong Xia Cao has antibacterial, antitumor, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-myocardial ischemia, kidney protection and other effects.
Northeast Cordyceps belongs to the lung and kidney meridians and has the effect of tonifying the kidneys and benefiting the lungs. It is effective in treating soreness in the waist and knees, impotence and spermatorrhea, kidney deficiency and sperm deficiency, and also relieves prolonged cough and asthma caused by lung deficiency. Northeast Cordyceps can stop bleeding, resolve phlegm, and improve strained cough and phlegm blood. In addition, Northeast Cordyceps is rich in protein, amino acids and Cordyceps polysaccharides, which can enhance the body's immunity, improve the heart muscle's function and prevent cardiac arrhythmia.
Dong Chong Xia Cao TCM
|Medicinal parts||The complex of substrates and larval carcasses.
|Nature and Taste||Sweet in taste and mild in nature.
|Return to the meridian||Inducing the lung and kidney meridians.
|Efficacy||Tonifying the kidney and benefiting the lung, stopping bleeding and resolving phlegm.
|Main treatment||Long-term cough and asthma, labor cough, phlegm and blood: this product is sweet and flat, a good product for the lungs and kidneys, functions to nourish the kidneys and benefit the lungs, stop bleeding, resolve phlegm, stop cough and calm asthma, especially labor cough, phlegm and blood are used.
|Related compound||a. It is used for treating strained cough, phlegm and blood. It can be used alone or in combination with Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Chuanbei, Radix Acaciae, Radix et Rhizoma Shengdi, Radix et Rhizoma Mai Dong. If the lungs and kidneys are deficient, no right to take in and take out, and if the Qi deficiency causes asthma, it can be used with ginseng, astragalus and pecan meat.
b. It can be stewed with chicken, duck, pork, etc. It has the function of tonifying the kidney and consolidating the essence, nourishing the lung and benefiting the body.
|Usage and Dosage||Take by decoction, 5-15g. It can be incorporated into pills and dispersal.
|Preparation method||Take the original herbs, remove impurities and sieve off the soil.
|Properties of herbs||This product consists of the insect body and the fungal ascomata growing from the head. The body resembles a silkworm, 3-5cm long, 3-8mm in diameter, the surface is dark brown to yellowish brown, with 20-30 annular lines, near the head of the annular lines are thin; head reddish brown, 8 pairs of feet, the central 4 pairs are more obvious; brittle, easy to break, the section is slightly flat, yellowish white. The ovary is solitary, elongated round du-shaped, 4-7 cm long, about 3 mm in diameter; seeking surface dark brown to brown, with fine longitudinal wrinkles, the upper part is slightly inflated, the head is not clearly distinguished from the stalk; texture is pliable, the cross section is whitish. Smell slightly fishy, taste light.
|Chemical composition||This product contains free amino acids of protein amino acids, most of which are essential amino acids, and also contains sugar, vitamins and calcium, potassium, chromium, nickel, manganese, iron, copper, zinc and other elements.
|Pharmacological effects||It has sedative, anticonvulsant and hypothermic effects on the central nervous system and enhances humoral immune function. The aqueous or alcoholic extract of Cordyceps can significantly inhibit the growth of sarcoma and other tumors in mice, the fermentation solution of Cordyceps can counteract the ST segment change of myocardial deficiency in rabbits, Cordyceps also has a protective effect on stressful heart infarction in rats, and the aqueous extract of Cordyceps has a significant protective effect on acute renal failure in rats.
Dong Chong Xia Cao side effects
a. For infants, taking Cordyceps can affect growth and development; for women, taking Cordyceps during menstruation can aggravate bleeding and cause lack of qi and blood.
b. If the patient has real inflammation, real fire, and the body is in a state of hyperthermia, taking Cordyceps will further increase the body temperature, which is not good for inflammation control or fire reduction.
c. Patients with high blood pressure, stroke and tumors must be cautious when using Cordyceps, otherwise it may raise blood pressure, induce brain hemorrhage and even the spread of tumors.
d. Patients with bleeding must be careful when taking Cordyceps, which may make the bleeding larger.
e. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, taking Cordyceps can cause increased inflammation and increased joint pain.
How to choose Dong Chong Xia Cao?
5 criteria for selecting cordyceps
a. Complete shape, fat worms and short grass. Cordyceps resembles silkworms in shape. It is about 3~5 cm long and 0.3~0.8 cm thick.
b. Observe the ring pattern. The ring pattern of Cordyceps is rough and obvious, near the head ring pattern is thin, there are 20~30 ring patterns.
c. Yellow and bright outside, white inside. The exterior of Cordyceps sinensis is dark yellow or yellowish brown.
d. Identify from the feet of the worm. Cordyceps has 8 pairs of feet all over the body, 3 pairs near the head, 4 pairs in the middle and 1 pair in the tail, and 4 pairs in the middle are the most obvious.
e. Recognition from the head of the substratum. The cotyledons on the head of Cordyceps are dark brown, cylindrical, 4~8 cm long, 0.3 cm thick, with tiny longitudinal wrinkles on the surface.
Dong Chong Xia Cao for cooking
Take appropriate amount of Dong Chong Xia Cao, clean it and put it into a pot, add appropriate amount of water and decoct it for about twenty minutes to take.
Prepare an appropriate amount of Dong Chong Xia Cao and white wine. Clean the Northeast Cordyceps, remove the surface water, put it into a glass container, add the right amount of white wine, seal it and keep it in a cool place, and drink it after one to two weeks. In addition, Northeast Cordyceps infusion needs to be taken under the guidance of a doctor, alcohol is prohibited.
Prepare an appropriate amount of chicken and Dong Chong Xia Cao. Clean the Northeast Cordyceps and set aside. Put the chicken in a pot of cold water, add green onion, cooking wine and ginger, bring to a boil and fish out. Put water back in the pot, add the chicken and Northeast Cordyceps, and simmer for about two hours to serve.
Precaution of taking Dong Chong Xia Cao
a. Keep good habits and try to avoid staying up late.
b. Eat less spicy or stimulating food.
c. Actively participate in outdoor sports and relax.
d. Don't put too much pressure on yourself and learn to reduce stress reasonably.
Dong Chong Xia Cao is suitable for people with cancer, diabetes, lupus erythematosus, chronic nephritis, chronic bronchitis in the elderly, emphysema, tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, cough shortness of breath, deficient asthma and hemoptysis, as well as people with leukopenia, excessive sweating, spontaneous sweating, night sweating, weakness after illness, long deficiency without recovery or senile weakness, deficiency of kidney energy, soreness in the waist and knees, impotence and spermatorrhea.
Pest control of Dong Chong Xia Cao
There are more pests and diseases that can occur in the cultivation process of Cordyceps sinensis, with as many as 20 known species. Pests and diseases mainly focus on the host insects, including fungi, bacteria, nematodes, parasitic insects, predation by natural enemies and mechanical damage, of which the highest death rate is caused by infection with germs, while parasitic insects and nematodes occur less frequently, and there are generally no natural enemies in indoor breeding. Mechanical damage is more common, although it does not cause direct death, but the wound is easy to infect the germs, resulting in the death of the host insect.
The disease is divided into fungal and bacterial diseases. The common pathogenic fungi are Penicillium mimicum, Green Sclerotinia, White Sclerotinia, Red Sclerotinia and so on. There is no effective and safe control agent for the disease, prevention is the main focus, integrated prevention and control, advocate pollution-free feeding, mainly should control the microorganisms in the environment of artificially reared bat moths. The indoor environment should be fully disinfected, the worm room should be fumigated and disinfected, eggs, water, feed and other materials entering the worm room should be disinfected and sterilized first, and the equipment and containers used for worm breeding should also be disinfected regularly to reduce pathogenic bacteria and parasites entering the breeding environment. Ensure feed supply, enhance worm resistance, check at all times, find and reject diseased and dead worms in time to prevent the spread of disease; actively screen the stock with high disease resistance, and promote crossbreeding to prevent stock degradation. In addition, breeding personnel should also pay attention to personal hygiene, disinfection work to prevent cross-contamination.
Insect pests include mites, nematodes, mosquitoes, parasitic flies, parasitic wasps, etc. The proportion of nematodes is small and parasitic pests rarely occur. After harvesting, remove the surface impurities and sediment to remove the mites (eggs) on the surface; process the herbs to reduce the water content to less than 15% to make the mites (eggs) die; keep the environment dry and clean during storage to avoid the entry and growth of mites. The herbs should be packed in sealed bags, preferably in inflatable packages to avoid mite infestation.
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