What is Gui Hua?
, the scientific name of Osmanthus sp.
is the habitual name of many trees in the genus Mignonette
in China, the representative species of Mignonette [scientific name: Osmanthus fragrans (Thunb.) Lour.], also known as rock laurel, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family of Mignonette, with a hard skin and thin, long elliptical leaves with pointed ends, opposite, and does not wither through the winter. The flowers are born between the bottom of the leaves, and the corolla is four-lobed, small in shape, and its horticultural varieties are numerous, the most representative ones are golden osmanthus, silver osmanthus, and Dan Gui.Osmanthus
is one of the top ten traditional Chinese flowers and is an excellent garden tree with both ornamental and practical uses. Especially during the Mid-Autumn Festival, when the laurel bush is in full bloom and the night is quiet and round, you can enjoy the laurel with a glass of wine, and the fragrance will be refreshing. Among the ancient Chinese poems on flowers, the number of poems on osmanthus is also quite significant. It has been loved by the Chinese since ancient times and is considered a traditional flower.
Morphological characteristics of Gui Hua
Osmanthus is an evergreen tree or shrub, 3-5 m tall, up to 18 m tall; bark gray-brown. Branchlets yellow-brown, glabrous. Leaf blade leathery, elliptic, long elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 7-14.5 cm long, 2.6-4.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base attenuate to cuneate or broadly cuneate, entire or usually upper half serrulate, both surfaces glabrous, glandular dots conjoined into small blister-like projections on both surfaces, midrib impressed above and raised below, lateral veins 6-8 pairs, up to 10 pairs, impressed above and raised below; petiole 0.8-1.2 cm long, up to 15 cm long, glabrous.
Cymes clustered in leaf axils, or nearly broomlike, with many flowers in each axil; bracts broadly ovate, thickly textured, 2-4 mm long, apiculate, glabrous; pedicels weak, 4-10 mm long, glabrous; flowers extremely fragrant; calyx ca. 1 mm long, lobes slightly untidy; corolla yellow-white, yellowish, yellow or orange-red, 3-4 mm long, corolla tube only 0.5-1 mm long; stamens inserted in corolla tube Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube, filaments very short, ca. 0.5 mm, anthers ca. 1 mm, connective slightly extended at anther apex as inconspicuous apiculus; pistil ca. 1.5 mm, style ca. 0.5 mm. The fruit is oblique, ellipsoid, 1-1.5 cm long, and purplish black. Fl. in September-early October, fr. in March of the following year.
Gui Hua has strong growth, sturdy branches, large leaf shape, rough leaf surface, dark green leaves, and orange-red flowers; it has medium growth, smooth leaf surface, serrated leaf margin, and creamy white flowers of silver laurel with dense flowers and sweet fragrance; it has stronger growth, smooth leaf surface, sparsely serrated leaf margin or full margin, yellowish flowers, sparse flowers, and light fragrance, and can bloom every 2 In addition to blooming in September and October in autumn with the above species, it can also bloom every 2 or 3 months. The fruit of Dang Gui and Four Seasons Gui is a purple-black drupe, commonly known as Gui Zi. Cinnamon seedlings have obvious main roots and a long and well-developed root system.
Growth environment of Gui Hua
Gui Hua flower
is adapted to subtropical climates
. It is warm and moist. The average temperature in the planting area is 14-28℃, the average temperature in July is 24-28℃, the average temperature in January is above 0℃, the minimum temperature -13℃ can be tolerated, and the optimum growing temperature is 15-28℃. Humidity is extremely important to the growth and development of cinnamon, requiring an annual average humidity of 75%-85%, and annual precipitation of about 1000 mm, especially the young and adult trees need more water when flowering, if encounter drought will affect flowering, strong sunlight and shade is not conducive to its growth, generally require 6-8 hours of light per day. Osmanthus
likes warmth and is highly resistant to adversity, tolerating both high temperatures and cold. Therefore, it can overwinter in the open in areas south of the Qinling and Huaihe rivers in China. It is sun-loving and shade-tolerant. Its branches and leaves grow luxuriantly and flower densely in full light, but branches and leaves are sparse and flowers are rare in shade. If planted indoors in the north, it is especially important to have sufficient light to facilitate growth and flower bud formation. Cinnamon is moist and should not be waterlogged, but it has a certain degree of drought tolerance. The soil requirements are not too strict, except for alkaline soils and low-lying soils or soils that are too clayey and poorly drained, but a deep, loose, fertile, well-drained, slightly acidic sandy loam is most suitable. Cinnamon is resistant to chlorine, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, and other harmful gases, has a strong ability to absorb stagnant dust, and is often used in urban and industrial, and mining areas. Guihua
is suitable for planting in a ventilated and light place; it likes a clean and ventilated environment and is not tolerant to smoke and dust, and often fails to bloom after being damaged; it is afraid of flooding and waterlogging, and if it is damaged by flooding, the roots will become black and rotten, and the leaves will first be scorched at the tips, then the whole leaves will be yellow and fall off, which will lead to the death of the whole plant; it is not very hardy, but it is still a relatively hardy species compared to other broad-leaved evergreen trees.
Gui Hua Xiang
Research on the aroma components of osmanthus flowers began in the 1960s and showed that linalool, β-viologen one, and dihydro-β-viologen one are the most important components of osmanthus aroma, and these substances act synergistically with other aroma-active substances to produce the unique aroma of osmanthus. Moreover, the aroma components and their mass fractions of different species groups of osmanthus differed greatly, which made the fragrance of different species groups of osmanthus different. In China, this is a very popular fragrance, also known as Gui Hua Xiang.
In order to retain the fragrance of osmanthus, organic solvents such as petroleum ether and ethanol are often used to extract the fragrance components from the flowers and "store" them in products such as infusions and essential oils. Cinnamon cake, cinnamon stuffing, processing, and making cinnamon-flavored food is also one of the ways to retain the beauty of the season. However, it is difficult to avoid the loss of some aromatic substances during the processing of processed products, which can sometimes cause changes in the aroma. Therefore, it is better to seize the good time to enjoy the flowers, smell the fragrance of osmanthus and leave a good memory.
Gui Hua tea
Gui Hua tea, one of the main types of tea in China, is a floral tea, made from cinnamon flowers and tea leaves, with a rich and persistent fragrance and a green and bright soup color. It has the effect of warming Yang energy, whitening skin, detoxifying the body, relieving cough and phlegm, and nourishing the lungs.
In the process of collection, configuration, production, and packaging undergoes eight processes, such as tea embryo preparation, fresh osmanthus harvesting, tea embryo cellaring, flower dissipation, sieving of flower residue, re-baking and drying, consideration of net packaging, and quality storage. Osmanthus tea is most abundant in Guangxi Guilin, Hubei Xianning, Sichuan Chengdu, and Chongqing.
Gui Hua oolong tea
Gui Hua oolong
Gui Hua Oolong
is a traditional export product of Anxi, Fujian Province, the hometown of Tieguanyin, mainly sold to Hong Kong, Australia, Southeast Asia, and Western Europe. Guihua Oolong tea
is mainly made from summer and autumn tea of the same year or the next year.
Types of Gui Hua
Gui Hua flower
Gui Hua has been planted for a long time, naturally hybridized and artificially selected, producing many cultivars. Through further investigation and cleaning, 32 varieties of osmanthus have been initially identified. In terms of flower color, there are Jin Gui, Yin Gui, and Dan Gui; in terms of leaf type, there are Liu Ye Gui, Jin Shan Gui, Di Shui Huang, Kui Hua Ye, and Chai Bing Huang; in terms of the flowering period, there are Ba Yue Gui, Si Ji Gui, and so on.
Osmanthus has formed a rich and diverse range of cultivars due to its long-standing artificial cultivation, natural hybridization, and artificial selection. After an extensive survey of osmanthus resources and varieties in all major cities in China, field records of osmanthus flowering traits, analysis and comparison of traits of various types of osmanthus, selection of more stable genetic traits, and identification and collation of four species groups of osmanthus by traditional classification methods and application in garden production.
Application of Gui Hua
Gui Hua is yellowish white, aromatic, extracts aromatic oil, makes cinnamon infusion, can be used in food, and cosmetics, can make cakes and candies and can make wine. Cinnamon is pungent and can be used as medicine. Flowers, fruits, and roots are used as medicine. The flowers are harvested in autumn; the fruits in spring; and the roots in all seasons and dried separately.
Gui Hua flower is used for hypochondriacal stomach pain. Root: Dispelling wind-dampness and dispersing cold. Used for wind-damp tendon pain, lumbago, kidney deficiency, and toothache.
The ancients considered Guihua as the longest of all medicines, so the wine made from the Gui Hua flower can achieve the effect of "living a thousand years after drinking it". For example, during the Han Dynasty, osmanthus wine was used to honor the gods and ancestors, and after the rituals were completed, the younger generation would offer osmanthus wine to their elders, who would then drink it as a symbol of longevity. The wine is sweet and mellow and has the function of appetizing the stomach and invigorating the spirit, strengthening the spleen, and replenishing the weakness. It is especially suitable for women, and has been praised as a "happy wine for women". There are theories and practices of flower therapy in Chinese medicine, and osmanthus wine is a typical example.
Gui Hua tea can nourish beauty, soothe the throat, improve phlegm, and cough symptoms, and cure duodenal ulcers, hives, stomach colds and stomach pain, bad breath, and visual uncertainty.
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