What is Huang Jing?
is the name of Chinese medicine
is the dried rhizome of Polygonatum kingianum Coll. et Hemsl. of the lily family, Polygonatum sibiricum Red. or Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. According to different shapes, it is customarily called "Big Yellow Essence", "Chicken Head Yellow Essence" and "Ginger Shaped Yellow Essence". It nourishes the qi and yin, strengthens the spleen, moistens the lungs, and benefits the kidneys. It is often used for deficiency of Qi in the spleen and stomach, body fatigue and weakness, deficiency of stomach Yin, dry mouth and little food, deficiency of lung and dry cough, coughing and coughing up blood, deficiency of essence and blood, soreness and weakness of the waist and knees, premature graying of the hair, internal heat and thirst.
Morphological characteristics of Huang Jing
The rhizome of Huang Jing is cylindrical, with a thick "internode" at one end and a thin "internode" at the other because of the enlarged nodes, with short branches at the thick end (the Chinese medical journal calls the herb made from this rhizome type chicken-head yellow essence), 1-2 cm in diameter. The stem is 50-90 cm tall, or up to 1 m or more, sometimes in a climbing form. Leaves whorled, 4-6 per whorl, striate lanceolate, 8-15 cm long, (4-)6-16 mm wide, apex fist-curled or curved into a hook.
Inflorescence of Huangjing usually with 2-4 flowers, seemingly umbrella-shaped, total pedicel 1-2 cm long, pedicel (2.5-)4-10 mm long, drooping; bracts at the base of the pedicel, membranous, subulate or striate-lanceolate, 3-5 mm long, with 1 vein; perianth creamy white to yellowish, 9-12 mm long, slightly constricted at the middle of the perianth tube, lobes about 4 mm long; filaments 0.5 -1 mm, anthers 2-3 mm long; ovary ca. 3 mm long, style 5-7 mm long. Berries of Huangjing are black, 7-10 mm in diameter, with 4-7 seeds. May-June, August-September.
Growth environment of Huang Jing
Huang Jing is distributed in China, Korea, Mongolia, and eastern Siberia of the USSR; in China, Huangjing is distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu (east), Henan, Shandong, Anhui (east), Zhejiang (northwest), and Jiangxi (Tonggu). Huang jing grows in shady places in forest understories, thickets, or mountain slopes at 800-2800 m above sea level.
Huang Jing herb is suitable for a cool, moist, shaded environment; the soil is permeable, loose, fertile sandy loam; hardy to cold.
Cultivation techniques of Huang Jing
Huang Jing herb
Land selection and preparation
When planting Huang Jing, you need to choose a moist, shaded, well-drained plot with deep and fertile soil, loose soil, and easy watering, and avoid continuous crop. The plots planted with yellow essence and seedlings in the previous crop cannot be used as seedling fields. In the selected plot tilled 25-30 cm, leveled and harrowed; open the drainage ditch, ditch width 30 cm; make a raised bed 1.5 m wide and 20 cm deep, the border is leveled and compacted. Apply 1000 kg of well-rotted farmyard manure or 50 kg of commercial organic fertilizer and 25 kg of compound fertilizer per mu.
Plant as soon as possible after obtaining seeds, the earlier the better, from September to mid-March of the following year (transplanting should be done after the seedlings have fallen and before they emerge). Plant the seeds in a trench at a spacing of 25 cm x 17 cm, with a depth of 10 cm. Soak the seeds in a solution of carbendazim 800 times and rooting powder for 10 minutes or mix them with quicklime powder, dry them slightly, place them in the trench, and cover them with 5-8 cm of soil. After transplanting, 1 time of rooting water is required.
After planting Huang Jing seeds, they should be covered with a layer of straw or leaves, hay, or other mulch, which can retain moisture on the one hand and keep warm on the other, so that they can take root before germination.
Weeding and loosening the soil
After the seedlings emerge, the soil should be loosened and weeded in time to keep the border free of weeds. Weeding is usually done during the seedling stage (5-10 cm high) and the pre-blooming stage (mid to late April), and three times in the first year of planting, but after two years, there is no need to weed, only to pull out the weeds that grow vigorously.
If the base fertilizer is sufficient, fertilizer cannot be pursued in general. If there is no fertilizer or little fertilizer, fertilizer can be combined with mid-tillage and weeding. The first time in the emergence of yellow sperm (mid-March) with irrigation fertilizer, and the second time in early May to promote flowering fertilizer.
Irrigation and drainage
In the May flowering period, Huangjing needs more water, if dry early, soil moisture is poor, should be timely in the border ditch put water infiltration or sprinkler irrigation, and prohibit large water diffusion. 8-October is Huang Jing underground part of the rapid growth period, if encounters continuous rainy weather and soil waterlogging, should be timely drainage.
Topping is done at the time of leaf development when yellow sperm leaves are at 8-10 nodes. Select a sunny day 06:00-10:00, by hand pinching method to remove the top bud.
Harvesting and processing
If Huang Jing is harvested too early, the yield is not yet formed; if it is harvested too late, the density is too high and the competition for nutrients is intense, which affects the growth of Huang Jing.
Huangjing propagated by seeds can be harvested in 3-4 years, and Huangjing propagated asexually can be harvested in 1-2 years. It can be harvested in autumn after the above-ground part withered to the next spring before germination. The harvested yellow essence is washed to remove the roots and stems, washed the soil, removed the rotten scars, steamed through, dried in the sun, or dried.
Types of Huang Jing
Dian Huang Jing
The rhizome of Dian Huang Jing is subterete or sub connate, with nodules sometimes irregularly rhombic, plump, 1-3 cm in diameter. Stem 1-3 m tall, the tip as climbing. Leaves whorled, 3-10 per whorl, striped, lanceolate or lanceolate, 6 -20(-25) cm long, 3-30 mm wide, apex fist-curled. Inflorescence with (1-)2-4(-6) flowers, involucral pedicel pendulous, 1-2 cm long, pedicel 0.5-1.5 cm long, bracts membranous, minute, usually located in the lower part of the pedicel; perianth pink, 18-25 mm long, lobes 3-5 mm long; filaments 3-5 mm long, filiform or flattened on both sides, anthers 4-6 mm long; ovary 4-6 mm long, style (8-)10-14 10-14 mm. Berries red, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, with 7-12 seeds. Fl. March-May, fr. September-October.
Huang Jing's rhizome is cylindrical, with a thick "internode" at one end and a thin "internode" at the other due to the enlarged nodes, with short branches at the thick end (the Chinese medical journal calls this rhizome type of herbs made from chicken-head yellow essence), 1-2 cm in diameter. The stem is 5o-90 cm tall, or up to 1 m or more, sometimes in a climbing form. Leaves whorled, 4-6 per whorl, striate lanceolate, 8-15 cm long, (4-)6-16 mm wide, apex fist-curled or curved into a hook. Inflorescences usually with 2-4 flowers, seemingly umbrella-shaped, total pedicel 1-2 cm long, pedicel (2.5-)4-10 mm long, drooping; bracts at the base of the pedicel, membranous, subulate or laciniate lanceolate, 3-5 mm long, with 1 vein; perianth creamy white to yellowish, 9-12 mm long throughout, slightly constricted at the middle of the perianth tube, lobes ca. 4 mm long; filaments 0.5-1 mm long, anthers 2- 3 mm long. 3 mm; ovary ca. 3 mm long, style 5-7 mm long. Berries 7-10 mm in diameter, black, with 4-7 seeds. Fl. May-June, fr. August-September.
Huang Jing multiflora
The rhizomes of Huangjing multiflora are plump, usually beaded or nodular, rarely subterete, and 1-2 cm in diameter. Stems 50-100 cm tall, usually with 10-15 leaves. Leaves alternate, elliptic, ovate-lanceolate to rectangular-lanceolate, rarely slightly falcate, 10-18 cm long, 2-7 cm wide, apex pointed to acuminate. Inflorescence with (1-)2-7(-14) flowers, umbellate, total pedicel 1-4(-6) cm long, pedicel 0.5-1.5(-3) cm long; bracts minute, located below the middle of the pedicel, or absent; perianth yellowish green, 18-25 mm long throughout, lobes ca. 3 mm long; filaments 3-4 mm long, flattened or slightly flattened on both sides, papillate to short woolly, slightly inflated at the tip and even anthers 3.5-4 mm long; ovary 3-6 mm long, style 12-15 mm long. Berry black, ca. 1 cm in diameter, with 3-9 seeds. May-June, fr.
Application of Huang Jing
Huang Jing Tea
Huang Jing is sweet and flat in taste. It has the effect of nourishing the spleen and moistening the lung, benefiting the qi and nourishing the yin, replenishing the essence, removing wind and dampness, and calming the five organs.
Huang Jing tea is a good tonic, often drinking it has good body strengthening, light body health, and anti-aging effect.
Huang Jing powder
Huang Jing power is a powder ground from Huangjing, the dried rhizome of Dian Huangjing, Huang Jing or Huangjing multiflora, a plant of the lily family. It is mainly produced in Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, and Anhui. According to traditional medicine, Huang Jing is sweet and flat in nature and belongs to the spleen, lung, and kidney meridians. It is used for treating a deficiency of spleen and stomach qi, fatigue, deficiency of stomach yin, dry mouth and little food, lung deficiency, and dry cough, coughing up blood with labor, deficiency of essence and blood, weakness of the waist and knees, premature graying of the hair, and internal heat and thirst.
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