What is Di Jiang?
, scientific name: Helianthus tuberosus
(L. 1753), which is also called Jerusalem artichoke
, also known as Juyu, devil ginger, is a perennial herb. 1-3 meters high, with massive underground stems and fibrous roots. Stems erect, branched, covered with short white hairs or bristles. The leaves are usually opposite and have petioles, but the upper leaves are alternate; the lower leaves are ovate or ovate-elliptic. Flower heads are large, few or many, solitary on branch ends, with 1-2 linear lanceolate bracts, erect, usually 12-20 tongue-like flowers, yellow tongue, spreading, oblong , tubular flower corolla yellow, 6 mm long. Achenes are small, wedge-shaped, with 2-4 hairy cone-shaped flat awns on the upper end. The flowering period is August-September.
The underground tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are rich in fructose polymers such as starch and inulin, which can be eaten, cooked or porridge, pickled pickles, dried Jerusalem artichoke in the sun, or used as raw materials for starch and alcohol production. Planting near the house also has a beautifying effect. Jerusalem artichoke is called "the 21st century shared crop between humans and animals" by the officials of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Jerusalem artichoke types
Red Jerusalem artichoke
The outer skin is purple, the flesh is white, and the weight of a single tuber is about 150 grams. It is generally fertile.
White Jerusalem artichoke
The outer skin is white, the flesh is white, and a single tuber weighs about 200 grams. It has good yield.
Growth environment of Di Jiang
Dijiang is native to North America, introduced to China via Europe, and is now cultivated in most parts of China.
Dijiang is cold-resistant and drought-resistant, and the tubers can survive the winter safely in the permafrost at -30°C. Seedlings in early spring can tolerate light frost, and mature leaves in autumn can tolerate short-term -4--5℃. Temperate 18-22 ℃, light 12 hours, is conducive to tuber formation. It is resistant to barrenness and has no strict requirements on the soil. Except for acidic soil, swamps and saline-alkali areas, some lands that are not suitable for planting other crops, such as ruins, housesides, and roadsides, dijiang can also grow.
Processing methods of Di Jiang
Collection and processing
When the stems and leaves of the Juyu plant are basically dry (the dry rate of the stem reaches more than 80%), it is the ripening period of the Jerusalem artichoke tuber. Generally, it is early and mid-October in the north, and late October to early November in the south. It can also be delayed until February of the following year. Harvest. When harvesting, cut off the stalk above the ground first, and then dig the tuber downward along the base of the stem. For plots with small cultivation areas, manual digging is generally used; for plots with large cultivation areas, Jerusalem artichoke harvesters are often used for mechanical excavation to improve harvesting efficiency. Used fresh or sun-dried.
Di Jiang TCM
The tuber or stem leaf of Jerusalem artichoke.
Sweet; slightly bitter; cool.
Return liver, urinary bladder channel.
Clearing away heat and cooling blood; reducing swelling.
Fever; intestinal heat bleeding; bruises; fracture swelling and pain, rhizome smashed and external application to treat unknown swelling poison, mumps.
Rhizome massive. The upper part of the stem is branched, covered with short hirsute or bristly hairs. Basal leaves opposite, upper leaves alternate, long ovate to ovate-elliptic, 10-15 cm long, 3-9 cm wide, 3-veined, rough on upper surface, pubescent on lower surface, serrated at leaf margin, acute at apex Pointed or acuminate, base broadly cuneate, with narrow wings on petioles.
Oral administration: decoction, 10-15g; or 1 root, chewed raw.
If you use Di Jiang in the spring of the second year, you can cut off the Jerusalem artichoke stalks after autumn, and do not harvest the Jerusalem artichoke tubers, but you should take them out as early as possible in the second spring, otherwise the germination will be very fast (the ground temperature will start to germinate at 2°C), Affect the quality of Jerusalem artichoke.
Winter storage method: dig a shallow cellar in autumn, put the Jerusalem artichoke in it, then sprinkle sand on it to keep the humidity and enough ventilation, and then cover it with 5 cm thick soil around it, so as not to expose the Jerusalem artichoke. When storing in large quantities, straw handles can be used as several ventilation holes. Jerusalem artichoke begins to hibernate below 0°C. During winter storage, it is afraid of heat but not cold. As long as it is covered with soil, it will not freeze to death at -50°C, and it can still germinate and grow in the second year. It is necessary to do a good job of winter storage in accordance with this principle. As long as the temperature is not high, it will not rot.
Di Jiang benefits
Lower blood fat
There are fructo-oligosaccharides in Di Jiang, which can effectively multiply the number of bifidobacteria in the human body, and is good for reducing blood lipids and improving lipid metabolism.
Regulate gastrointestinal function
Di Jiang can improve the function of intestinal peristalsis, make the stool soft and excreted quickly, reduce the time of toxins staying in the intestinal tract, thereby reducing the production of toxins, and has an improving effect on patients with constipation.
Lower blood sugar
The tubers of Di Jiang are sweet, flat, non-toxic, and the ingredients contained in it can lower blood sugar level and blood sugar concentration.
Di Jiang side effects
1. Di Jiang is a spicy and irritating food, so it is not suitable for patients with skin itching and eye diseases, so as not to aggravate the condition.
2. Di Jiang is generally a pickled food with high salt content, so it is not suitable for infants and young children.
3. Di Jiang itself is a high-calorie food, so you should avoid eating it with other high-calorie foods when eating, which may cause excessive heat in the body and symptoms such as getting angry.
How to take Di Jiang?
Di Jiang soup
Di Jiang 60-90g, sliced, decocted in water and taken. This side takes Jerusalem artichoke to have a diuretic effect. It can be used for water retention, edema, and dysuria. In addition, it can also be used for diabetes.
Jerusalem artichoke 30-60g, smashed, twisted to get the juice, can add appropriate amount of honey or sugar to taste, take it once. This product is used raw, whichever it can clear away heat and cool blood. For intestinal heat and blood in the stool.
The main ingredients are inulin, crude fiber and rich minerals. According to reports: fresh Jerusalem artichoke tubers contain about 15%-20% inulin, accounting for about 70% of the dry weight of Jerusalem artichoke, and 70%-80% of which are fructooligosaccharides, 79.8% moisture, 1.0% protein, and 2.8% ash, Crude fiber 16.6% and certain vitamins.
Inulin, for the treatment of diabetes.
In terms of diet, you can wash and chop 100g of Jerusalem artichoke tubers, wash and chop 100g of rice, add an appropriate amount of water and cook it into porridge, add salt and sesame oil and eat it. It is suitable for people with diabetes, edema, and poor urination.
The fresh tubers can be fried with vegetables or with shredded pork, which is crispy and delicious.
Take an appropriate amount of Juyu, wash it to remove impurities, control the water, put it in a jar, sprinkle with an appropriate amount of salt, or add sweet noodle sauce or other seasonings according to your own taste, stir and cover it for about 1 to 2 weeks. Take it out edible.
The rhizomes are mashed and applied externally to treat nameless swelling and mumps.
How to choose Di Jiang?
The appearance of Di Jiang is very simple, and most of them grow irregularly and the surface is not smooth. When we choose, we should try to choose the kind of Jerusalem artichoke that is well-proportioned in size, firm in hand, and uniform in color; it feels soft when pinched, even Do not buy Jerusalem artichokes that have soup flowing out. The most common colors of Jerusalem artichokes are red-skinned Jerusalem artichokes and white-skinned Jerusalem artichokes. If the skin color is dark or green, it is best not to buy it, because the taste will be much worse.
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