What is Su Mu?
is the dried heartwood of the leguminous plant Sumu
, with sweet, salty, slightly astringent, slightly odorless, and flat, and belongs to the heart, liver, and spleen meridian, and has the efficacy of activating blood stasis, reducing swelling and relieving pain. It is commonly used in Chinese medicine to treat bruises and pains, such as bruises and injuries, menorrhagia and pains in the heart and abdomen. It is mainly produced in Southeast Asia and distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan, Guizhou, and other places in China, among which, Guangxi is the main production and cultivation area.
Morphological characteristics of Su Mu
Su Mu is a genus of small trees, up to 6 m tall, sparsely spiny, ± finely pilose except on older branches, below leaves and pods; lenticels on branches dense and conspicuous. Leaves bipinnate 30-45 cm long; pinnae 7-13 pairs, opposite, 8-12 cm long, leaflets 10-17 pairs, close together, sessile, leaflets papery, oblong to oblong-rhombic, 1-2 cm long, 5-7 mm wide, apex emarginate, base oblique, inserted at oblique angles on pinnae; lateral veins slender, conspicuous on both surfaces, joining near to margin. Panicle terminal or axillary, ca. as long as leaves; bracts large, lanceolate, caducous; pedicels 15 mm long, finely pilose; receptacle shallowly campanulate; sepals 5, slightly unequal, the lower one larger than the others, cucullate; petals yellow, broad-obovate, ca. 9 mm, uppermost one pinkish at the base, stipitate; stamens slightly protruding, filaments densely pilose proximally; ovary gray tomentose, stipitate, style slender, hairy, stigma truncate. Pods woody, slightly compressed, sub oblong to oblong-obovate, ca. 7 cm long, 3.5-4 cm wide, base slightly narrowed, apex obliquely truncate, upper angle with recurved or upturned stiff beak, indehiscent, red-brown, glossy; seeds 3-4, oblong, slightly compressed, light brown. May-Oct; fr. July-March.
Growth environment of Su Mu
The distribution of Su Mu in Guangxi, China is mostly in the low mountains and hills of karst in southwest Guizhou. The vertical distribution is generally below 500 meters above sea level. Suga requires a warm and humid climate. The annual average temperature in the distribution area is 22℃, the average temperature of the hottest month is 27-29℃, the average temperature of the coldest month is 12-14℃, the absolute minimum temperature is -2.2℃, and the effective accumulation temperature is 7400-7900℃. The annual rainfall is 1000-2000 mm and the relative humidity is about 80%. The frost-free period can be up to eleven and a half months or more and can withstand short-term low temperatures of about 0℃.
Mu Su can grow in brown and black limestone soils, brick-red loamy red soils, and brick-red loamy soils. However, it grows well in deep, fertile, moist, neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 6.8-7.6) black lime soils, and can also grow on barren and dry hilltops and ridges. Suga can tolerate shade and can grow in the valley jungle, especially since the seedling stage needs shade. According to the nursery test of Guangxi Forestry Institute, the average increase of seedlings in shade is more than 25% than those without shade.
Sumu is cultivated in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, and Taiwan Provinces in China. It has a wild distribution in the Jinsha River valley (Yuanmou and Qiaojia) and the Honghe River valley in Yunnan. It is native to India, Myanmar, Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula, and Sri Lanka.
Cultivation techniques of Su Mu
Su Mu herb
Propagation by seed, mostly by seedling transplanting method, can also be live. Seedling transplanting, available in plastic bags and seedbeds, selected in February full of insect-free, shiny, solid seeds sown into the bag of soil or seedbed. Each bag sows 1-2 seeds; seedbed seedlings according to the row spacing 20cm × 5cm open trench spot sowing. When the seedlings are about 30cm high, choose a rainy day to move the seedlings and plant them. Field direct sowing, rainy season, choose a rainy day, each hole sowing 2-3 seeds, 1.5-2cm deep, cover straw moisture, and remove the straw when the seedlings. Direct seeding seedling height of 20cm time seedling, each hole left thick and strong seedling 1.
Weeding, loosening, watering, and ensuring the survival of seedlings are often carried out during the seedling stage. When the seedlings reach 1.5-2m high, repair techniques are carried out to cut off the branches at the base of the main stem to promote the thickening of the main stem and accelerate the increase of medicinal heartwood. After the height of 2.5m, the management can be rough. The stumps left after harvesting for medicine should be loosened and fertilized and watered to promote sprouting and renewal.
Pest and disease control
The stems and leaves are infested with blowing mites. Insects can be sprayed with Boehmer 0.5degree litho-sulfur compound or 50% malathion emulsion 600 times. The adult stage can be controlled by spraying with 1000-2000 times ethion or 1000 times 25% imitation emulsion.
Harvesting and storage
The tree of Su Mu can be harvested for medicine 8 years after planting. The trunk of the tree is cut down, the outer white sapwood is trimmed off, cut into sections 60cm long each, and the thicker ones are cut in half, dried, and then tied and stored in a cool, dry place.
Su Mu benefits
Su Mu herb benefits
Promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis, relieving swelling and pain, regulating qi, and promoting circulation
Su Mu can promote blood circulation, strengthen the body's immunity and improve blood clotting dysfunction, which can treat dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea caused by blood stasis. If a woman is unable to discharge her dew after childbirth due to blood stasis, she can also take Sumac to regulate it, which can activate blood and eliminate stasis. Sumu also reduces swelling and pain, fractures and injuries, and bruises can be used to eliminate swelling and reduce pain, and rheumatic diseases caused by joint pain, redness, and swelling. You can also use it to reduce symptoms. In addition, Su Mu herb also has the function of regulating the qi and promoting circulation, which can be used for the treatment of chest and abdominal tingling, numbness of the limbs, hand and foot rebellious cold, dark lips, and other diseases.
Su Mu side effects
Side effects are generally rare with Su Mu. However, side effects that may occur when taking sumac are often manifested as nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, drowsiness, and other reactions. Therefore, when using Sumac, it is important to take it as prescribed by your doctor to prevent side effects from occurring. Sumac is a Chinese herbal medicine that has the effect of activating blood circulation, relieving swelling and pain, and can be used to treat bruises, back pain, and rheumatism, and also has the effect of improving menstrual pain in women.
Application of Su Mu
aqueous decoction of the alcoholic extract significantly promotes micro-arterial blood flow and facilitates the recovery of micro-arterial diameter. Sumac reduces coronary resistance, enhances coronary flow, and slows the heart rate.
had a significant immunosuppressive effect, inhibiting lymphocyte transformation function and IL-2 activity in a quantitative-effective relationship. Hematoxylin can improve the phagocytosis of the mononuclear macrophage system of the body, has a significant inhibitory effect on DNCB-induced DTH, and has enhanced the formation of antibody-forming cells in mice with low humoral immunity.
Effect of blood
Su Mu significantly reduced blood viscosity. For ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rats, hematoxylin had a significant inhibitory effect.
Central inhibitory effect
An adequate amount of Su Mu water, with different methods of administration, had hypnotic effects on mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs, and large amounts still had anesthetic effects, even death. Can counteract the central excitatory effect of stirring and cocaine. But cannot counteract the excitability of morphine.
Su Mu decoction (10%) has a strong effect on Staphylococcus aureus and S. typhi, both with a potency of 1:1600 (paper disc method and test tube method). Dip, decoction on diphtheria bacillus, bacillus influenza, paratyphoid C, Fever dysentery bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, pneumococcus, etc., also on pertussis bacillus, typhoid bacillus, paratyphoid A, B bacillus and pneumonia bacillus, etc. (test tube method and plate method).
Su Mu aqueous extract has a strong inhibitory effect on mouse lymphocyte strain Yac I1, human red myeloid leukemia cell line K562, mouse fibroblast cell line L929, etc. The glutamine synthetase activity of HL-60 was inhibited by hematoxylin.
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