1. What is Chang Shan?
1.1 Morphological characteristics of Chang Shan
2. Growth environment of Chang Shan
3. How to reproduce Chang Shan?
4. Cultivation techniques of Chang Shan
5. Chang Shan benefits
6. Chang Shan side effects
7. How to buy Chang Shan?
What is Chang Shan?
Chang Shan is the dried root of Chang Shan Dichroa febrifuga Lour. Changshan is distributed in Shaanxi, Gansu, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet. It has the effect of spitting out phlegm and intercepting malaria. It is often used for the accumulation of phlegm and drinks, chest and diaphragm congestion, and malaria.
Morphological characteristics of Chang Shan
Chang Shan, a shrub of the genus Chang Shan in the family Tigridae, 1-2 m tall; small view terete or slightly quadrangular, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, often purplish red. Leaves variable in shape and size, often elliptic, obovate, elliptic-oblong, or lanceolate, 6-25 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate, margin serrate or coarsely toothed, sparsely undulate, green on both sides or purple on one to both sides, glabrous or only nerves crisped and rolled pubescent, sparsely villous below, lateral veins 8-10 on each side, reticulate veins sparse; petiole 1.5-5 cm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy.
Corymbose panicles of Changshan terminal, sometimes with lateral inflorescences in leaf axils, 3-20 cm in diameter, flowers blue or white; buds obovate, 6-10 mm in diameter when in full bloom; pedicels 3-5 mm long; calyx obconic, 4-6-lobed; lobes broad-triangular, acute, glabrous or hairy; petals oblong-elliptic, slightly fleshy, reflexed after flowering; stamens 10-20, half opposite petals, filaments linear, flattened, initially connate with petals, later separated, anthers ellipsoid; styles 4(5-6), rod-shaped, stigma oblong, ovary 3/4 inferior. Berries 3-7 mm in diameter, blue, black when dry; seeds ca. 1 mm long, reticulate. February-April, May-August.
Growth environment of Chang Shan
Chang Shan is distributed in India, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, and China; in China it is distributed in Shaanxi, Gansu, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei (Laifeng, Enshi, Hefeng, Lichuan, Jiansi, Badong, and Shennongjia), Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Xizang. Mostly wild in hills, ravines, streamsides, and shrub forests at altitudes of 600-1000 meters.
Chang Shan herb likes cooler and more humid climate, can slightly tolerate shade, avoid high temperature. The soil should be fertile, loose, well-drained, humus-rich oil sand, sandy soil is suitable.
How to reproduce Chang Shan?
The general propagation methods of Chang Shan are cuttings and seeds.
Chang Shan cuttings
Generally, before the sap flow in spring, select strong, disease-free Changshan branches and cut cuttings of 17-20 cm long, each with three bud nodes. The plugs can be buried with wet sand if they are not finished planting on the same day.
Treatment of cuttings
Before cutting, Chang Shan cuttings should be treated, usually with 150 mg/l of ABT1 No. 1 rooting powder to treat the base for 6 hours, or with the same drug at a concentration of 25-50 mg/l soaked for 24 hours, and then cuttings.
When cuttings are made in the border, dig a hole at a distance of 33 cm from the row, the hole depth of 20 cm, each hole with 3 plugs, and together, slightly inclined inserted in the hole, cover the soil, pressed, and then covered with loose soil and the border flat. If the soil is dry, it should be drenched with water after insertion.
Seed selection and seed treatment
The mature fruits of plants over 3 years old are selected, mixed with wet sand for storage, and the seeds are pulled out and washed before sowing the following year.
Generally, seeds are sown in mid to late March. Mix the seeds with 60 times of fine soil and spread evenly on the bed. After sowing, mulch the soil to suppress and cover with grass to keep the soil moist. During the seedling stage, a simple shade house with 30-40% light transmission and enhanced fertilizer and water management is required, with a seed sowing rate of 9 kg per hectare.
Cultivation techniques of Chang Shan
Land selection and preparation
Chang Shan should be cultivated in a sandy loam soil with fertile and loose soil and good drainage.
Before tilling, apply 30,000-3,500 kg of well-rotted stable fertilizer or compost per hectare to the cuttings, turn them into the soil, break up the soil after turning, remove all the grass roots and stones, and then make a border; apply 22,500 kg of animal and human manure and water per hectare to the sowing ground, plus 750 kg of well-rotted oil-waste cake. Scatter it evenly on the ground and turn it shallowly once to make the soil and fertilizer mix evenly, then make a border. Generally, the border width is 120 cm, the ditch width is 30 cm, the border height is about 15 cm, the border is tile-back shaped, and the drainage ditch is opened around to facilitate drainage.
Transplanting and planting
After 2 years of cultivation, planting of Changshan can be done. The spacing between planting rows and plants is about 30 cm x 30 cm.
Mid-tillage and weeding
After the seedlings are transplanted in spring, select a sunny day to loosen the soil and weed in time. Loose soil should be shallow rather than deep to avoid harming the root system of seedlings, hoeing the topsoil loose to let the sun shine, which can improve the ground temperature and promote the growth of seedling roots. Generally, weeding 4 times a year, respectively in April, June, August and November.
Direct cuttings and seedlings after planting before sealing, and combined with weeding, fertilization 3-4 times a year, fertilizer to animal and human manure, urea, cake fertilizer, soil fertilizer. The flowers and fruits are removed during the flowering and fruiting period, which can promote plant growth.
The soil is too sticky and wet, which can lead to root rot and death, while the soil is too dry and prone to water loss and death. Therefore, in the winter combined with fertilization and cultivation of soil to clear the ditch, weeding by tillage, a small amount of supplemental fertilizer, and then deepen the field ditch system, so that drainage is smooth, and the field is not waterlogged after heavy rain. In case of drought, irrigation should be carried out in time to prevent seedlings from dying, and irrigation is appropriate to moisten the soil. Weeding should be mastered when the soil is dry, usually should often clear the ditch drainage, to maintain the soil suitable humidity.
Chang Shan benefits
The aliases of Chang Shan include Yu Ye Jin Hua and Goose Flower. Chang Shan herb has the effect of inducing vomiting and surging leaf phlegm and saliva. It is often used to treat phlegm removal, malaria, scrofula and other diseases. It is not suitable for use by the weak, elderly and pregnant women. Patients should pay attention to the protection of stomach qi when using Chang Shan, because Chang Shan has emetic effect, so the usage should not be too heavy dosage should not be too large. Patients should also visit a hospital before taking Chang Shan to make sure they are not allergic to it.
Changshan is an important medicine for malaria, which can resolve phlegm and fight malaria, clear heat and promote water.
a. Antimalarial. Chang Shan has significant efficacy against experimental malaria infection. The active ingredient is everolimus. The strength of the action of pertussis B and C is about 89-152 times that of quinine. In recent years, it has also been proved that pertussis B has good efficacy against falciparum malaria and intermittent malaria in acute attacks, and can control the symptoms rapidly and negative the Plasmodium in blood, but it cannot be cured. Its main side effect is vomiting, and extra-gastrointestinal administration can also cause vomiting.
b. Emetic. The effect is more powerful, and its principle is mainly the reflex effect caused by stimulating the gastrointestinal tract.
c. Antipyretic. Animal experiments have demonstrated that Changsan has an obvious and definite antipyretic effect. This effect may be related to the central nervous system inhibition.
d. Anti-viral. In vitro experiments have proved that Changshan has an inhibitory effect on influenza A virus PR8, and also on mice infected with influenza.
e. Antiamoebic. In vitro and animal experiments, treatment, have proved to have some inhibitory effect on amoeba protozoa.
f. Other effects. The exercise experiment proves that Chang Shan herb Alkaline A, B and C injected intravenously in anesthetized dogs can cause a decrease in blood pressure; it has an excitatory effect on pregnant uterus, and the in vitro test has a certain killing effect on Ehrlich ascites cancer cells.
Chang Shan side effects
The Chinese medicine Chang Shan is toxic and has a strong emetic effect, which can irritate the gastric mucosa and destroy the capillary walls in the intestine, and overdose can lead to nausea and vomiting, and gastrointestinal bleeding in patients. Therefore, patients should follow the doctor's instructions and listen to the dose allocated by the doctor, not to overdose. Chang Shan is cold and bitter in taste, mostly used to treat phlegm and loss of appetite. If the above situation occurs, go to the hospital as soon as possible and do not take it privately. Special attention should be paid to the use of pregnant women, and it should not be combined with betel nut, which can increase toxicity.
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