What is Di Yu?
is the dried root of Sanguisorba officinalis L.
or Sanguisorba officinalis L. var. longifolia (Bert.) Yu etLi, family Rosaceae
. The latter name of Diyu
is commonly known as "Mian Di Yu
". The roots are removed, washed and dried, or sliced and dried while fresh.
Morphological characteristics of Di Yu
Di Yu is a perennial herb, 30-120 cm tall. Roots stout, mostly fusiform, sparsely cylindrical, surface brown or purple-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and transverse fissures, cross-section yellowish white or purple-red, more flat.
The stem is erect, prickly, glabrous or with sparse glandular hairs at the base. Basal leaves are pinnately compound, with 4 to 6 pairs of leaflets, petiole glabrous or base with sparse glandular hairs; leaflets are short-stalked, ovate or oblong-ovate, 1 to 7 cm long, 0.5 to 3 cm wide, apical part rounded and sparse acute, base cordate to shallowly cordate, margin with numerous coarse rounded and sparse acute serrations, both surfaces green, glabrous; stem leaves are less frequent, leaflets are short-stalked to few sessile, oblong to oblong-lanceolate. narrowly long, base slightly cordate to rounded, apically acute; basal leaf stipules membranous, brown, outside absent, hairy or sparsely glandular hairy, cauline leaf stipules large, herbaceous, semi-ovate, outer margin acutely serrate.
Spikes elliptic, cylindrical or ovoid, erect, usually 1 to 3 cm long, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter across, opening downward from the inflorescence tip, peduncle smooth or occasionally sparsely glandular hairy; bracts membranous, lanceolate, apically acuminate to caudate, shorter than or subequal to sepals, abaxially and marginally pilose; sepals 4, purplish red, elliptic to broadly ovate, abaxially sparsely pilose, with a central longitudinal ridge, apically Stamens 4, filaments filiform, not enlarged, subequal to or slightly shorter than sepals; ovary glabrous outside or basally puberulent, stigma apically enlarged, discoid, margin with fimbriate papillae. The fruit is enclosed in the persistent calyx tube and has a glabella on the outside. Flowering and fruiting period of Diyu is from July to October.
Growth environment of Di Yu
Di Yu is born on sunny slopes and thickets and likes sandy soil. It is hardy in the lower part of the ground and tolerates high temperature and rain in the upper part of the ground, and is not selective in soil.
Diyu is produced in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Shandong, Henan, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Xizang in China. Grasslands, meadows, hillside grasslands, thickets, and under sparse forests, 30-3000 m above sea level. Widely distributed in Europe and the northern temperate zone of Asia.
How to reproduce Di Yu?
Di Yu is propagated mainly by seed and root division.
Sowing can be done in spring or autumn, and for open field cultivation in the north, and it can be broadcasted from spring to late summer. Before planting, select well-drained, deep, loose and fertile land with a soil organic matter content of 4.052g/kg and pH 8.87 in the R&D base. Spring sowing can be done in February in a thick-walled greenhouse to withdraw seedlings, or in late April to sow seedlings. Autumn sowing is done around the summer festival. The ground is prepared, the ground is turned over 10-20cm deep, the bricks and tiles are removed, the ground is raked, sufficient fertilizer is applied, the ground is prepared and the border is made according to 1.2mX6m, the ground is leveled, sufficient bottom water is poured before sowing, the seeds are spread evenly, and the depth of the mulch is 2-3 times the size of the seeds. The ground temperature is generally around 18℃ and seedlings can emerge in 20 days. When the seedlings grow for 2 months, they can be transplanted in the nutrient bowl, and the survival rate can reach more than 90% when the seedlings are refined and slowed down in the continuous greenhouse. The best time to plant the seedlings is at the end of May and the beginning of June, when the elm is in its peak growing season, and the seedlings will grow fast and well. The root system of ground elm is deep, so it is better to turn the planting plot deeply, make a border according to 1.5mX6m, irrigate enough bottom water, start seedlings at a depth of not less than 30cm, planting distance of 20cm×20cm, watering and proper shade, 15~20 days later, the plants can start to grow. Without shade, the above-ground part of the plant will lose water and wilt and die. 1 month later, the shoots will be sent out from the base of the rootstock and start growing again.
Diyu is mostly planted in spring before the sprouting of the ground elm or in autumn when the ground elm is dug, using the small roots with stems and buds as seedlings. One plant is planted in each hole, and the hole is dug at a distance of 30~40cm between rows and 25cm between plants, the depth of which depends on the size of the seedling.
Cultivation techniques of Di Yu
The collection time of Di Yu seeds should be in the middle and late September, which can ensure the quantity of seeds and have relative quality assurance. After observing the experiment, the primed cultivated Di Yu, due to the small influence of environmental conditions, the seeds are not easy to fall off, and the appropriate delay of seed collection, time in the first and middle of October, can improve the quality of seeds.
Field management of Di Yu herb is relatively loose and free from pests and diseases, but it should be watered frequently to keep the soil moist, and nitrogen fertilizer should be applied a few times, most preferably with well-rotted human urine. Especially after harvesting young leaves, use 1 part of rotted urine with 4 parts of water to chase, or use fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer to chase, which can promote the growth of leaves and delay the flowering period or not flowering. If only the young leaves are harvested for cultivation, removing the flowering shoots when the plants just start to shoot can encourage the tiller to grow new leaves. Promptly perform mid-tillage and weeding during the seedling stage.
Diyu seeds can be harvested after seedling emergence. As the plant grows up, harvest the young leaves and break them by hand as young products; for large area planting, harvest with a sickle and leave the basal petiole at 5cm to avoid hurting the growing point. The young leaves are not resistant to storage and should be eaten fresh.
Di Yu benefits
Cooling the blood to stop bleeding, detoxifying and astringent to sores
Di Yu herb is the dried root of Di Yu, family Rosaceae, which is hard, odorless and slightly bitter and astringent. It is harvested in spring when it is about to sprout or in autumn after the plant has withered, and the fibrous roots are removed, washed and dried, or sliced and dried while fresh. It is bitter, sour, astringent, slightly cold, and belongs to the liver, lung, kidney and large intestine meridians. It has the effect of cooling the blood and stopping bleeding, detoxifying and astringent sores.
Cooling the blood to stop bleeding
Di Yu is bitter, sour, astringent and slightly cold in nature, with cooling effect on blood to stop bleeding, applicable to blood in stool, hemorrhoids, blood dysentery and leakage.
Detoxifying and astringent
Diyu is astringent in taste and has the effect of astringent sores and detoxification. It can be applied externally to the affected area and can be used for water and fire burns, carbuncles and sores.
Di Yu side effects
Possible side effects of Diyu include allergy, gastrointestinal reactions, and liver reactions.
a. Allergy. Patients with Di Yu drug targeting are immunocompromised due to leukopenia. Allergy depends on the individual's constitution and may result in rash, itching and other allergic symptoms.
b. Gastrointestinal reactions. Taking Diyu herb may cause diarrhea, constipation, indigestion and other symptoms, which need to be distinguished from the primary disease.
c. Liver reaction. Di Yu is a traditional Chinese medicine with bitter, sour and slightly cold properties. All bitter and cold medicinal properties tend to harm the digestion and absorption of the spleen and stomach, and long-term consumption can also affect liver and kidney functions. When decocted juice of Di Yu herb is taken internally, the medicine should be used according to the doctor's instructions. Do not increase or decrease the amount of medicine on your own.
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