What is Hong Nan?
Hong Nan is the root bark of Machilus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. It is distributed in Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Taiwan, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong and Hunan in China. Hongnan has the effects of warming the middle, regulating the qi and stomach, relaxing the tendons and activating the channels, reducing swelling and analgesia. Commonly used for cold and vomiting, diarrhea, children vomiting milk, dull food, sprains and contusions, tendon rotation, cold and damp feet.
Morphological characteristics of Hong Nan
Hong Nan is an evergreen medium-sized tree, usually 10-15 (20) meters tall; trunk thick and short, up to 2-4 meters around; bark yellowish brown; crown flat-topped or flat-rounded. Branches are numerous and spreading, purple-brown, old branches rough, young branches purple-red, with a few longitudinal cracks and lip-like lenticels on second- and third-year branches, and several to many rings of scars at the base of new branches and second- and third-year branches after the terminal bud scales have fallen off. Terminal buds ovate or oblong-ovate, scales brown leathery, broadly rounded, smaller in the lower part, wider in the middle, rounded at the apex, abaxially glabrous, with small eyelashes at the margin, hairs at the margin of the upper scales dense.
Its leaves are obovate to obovate-lanceolate, 4.5-9(13) cm long, 1.7-4.2 cm wide, apex short-surge or short acuminate, acumen obtuse, base cuneate, leathery, black-green above, glossy, lighter below, pinkish white, midrib slightly concave above, distinctly raised below, lateral veins 7-12 on each side, obliquely ascending, slightly straight, upwardly curved along the leaf margin to near the leaf margin, more or less wavy. There are irregular transverse veins between the lateral veins, and the veinlets are knotted into a small network, visible on young leaves, forming shallow nests, often less obvious on both sides of older leaves; the petiole is relatively slender, 1-3.5 cm long, with shallow grooves on it, reddish like the midvein.
Inflorescence terminal or axillary on new branches, glabrous, 5-11.8 cm long, branched at the upper end; many flowered, the involucral pedicel accounting for 2/3 of its full length, purplish-red, the lower branches often with 3 flowers, the upper branches with fewer flowers; bracts ovate, with brownish-red appressed tomentum; perianth lobes oblong, about 5 mm long, the outer whorl narrower, slightly shorter, acute at the apex, outside glabrous, the inner face tip puberulent; filaments glabrous Stamens with stalked, third whorl of glands, staminodes with bristles at base; ovary globose, glabrous; style slender, stigma capitate; pedicel 8-15 mm long.
Fruit depressed globose, 8-10 mm in diameter, initially green, later turning black-purple; fruiting pedicel bright red. Fl. February, fr. July.
Growth environment of Hong Nan
is usually found in mixed broad-leaved forests
in mountainous areas.
In nature, Hongnan
mostly grows in moist places on low mountain shady slopes, often mixed with other species in the Chitaceae, Camelliaceae, Magnoliaceae and Camphoraceae. It mostly grows in mountain forests below 800m above sea level, often mixed with hooked chestnut, leopard-skin camphor, camphor, bald dewberry, quebracho, bitter chink and thick-barked incense, etc. There are few patches of pure forests.
Cultivation techniques of Hong Nan
Hong Nan tree
Hong Nan's bare-root seedlings are planted using the common planting method of "three mulching, two stepping, and one lifting", and the seedlings are strictly planted correctly, rooted, deep and tightly. If it is a container seedling, make sure the substrate in the container does not fall apart in the process of tearing open the container bag, and avoid the "mentioning seedling" process when planting. As the survival rate of bare root seedlings is low, it is best to use container seedlings for reforestation.
After planting, the seedlings of Hong Nan should be watered in time to ensure that the root system is in close contact with the soil to improve the survival rate of the plantation.
In the first three years, the roots of the trees are cut to ensure the growth of the main trunk. The base of red heather seedlings like sprouting branches, easy to form multiple stem phenomenon, affecting the growth of the main trunk, to cultivate timber and gardening trees for the purpose of the first few years of afforestation to remove the base of the sprout and cut the secondary top of the main tip lateral to ensure the growth of the main tip, to accelerate the high growth of the main trunk.
From the second year of planting to the time of lushness, it is done every year before the buds of red heather sprout. The plant should be fertilized with 0.25kg of compound fertilizer per plant in a trench around the canopy.
Young forests should be nurtured at the peak of growth and before the dry season. In the first year of planting, it is generally better to do not less than three times. After that, generally two or three times a year, and until the young forest began to lush, the forest weeds less, can be 1-2 years to remove the miscellaneous loosening once. The time of year for nurturing is April-June and October-November. In the first year of forestation in hilly areas to prevent the damage of sunburn, if you can plant crops in the forest, to cultivate instead of nurture is a more effective way to promote the growth of forest trees.
How to reproduce Hong Nan?
Hong Nan's seeds should be selected from a good mother tree of more than 20 years old, shaking or shaking the branches, mature fruits fall off, collect mature fruits from the ground, the same day into a woven bag rubbing, remove the skin, pulp, placed in water to wash clean, water traces slightly dry, immediately sowing.
Hong Nan seeds have a high-water content (43%), the seeds should not lose water, do not put bare, otherwise lose germination rate, seeds do not ripen period, therefore, it is appropriate to sow with the harvest. If you cannot immediately sow, must be timely with moist fine sand short-term (7-10 days) storage, sand cannot be too wet, which is the key to success or failure of storage, the standard of wet sand is to grab a handful of wet sand, hold with force when not dripping, loosening the sand and not spread (that is, close to 60% moisture content). According to 3 parts sand 1 part seed fully mixed storage.
Hong Nan benefits
Hong Nan is usually used to treat sprains and contusions, tendons and swollen feet. The actual bark and bark of the tree are usually used as medicine, and the roots of the tree contain chemical components such as apricot yellow poppy bases and oxymoronine. This drug is generally used externally, decoction of water fumigation or pounding the appropriate amount of the affected area. It can relieve sprains and contusions, foot swelling and other symptoms, as well as improve the symptoms of the tendon.
Application of Hong Nan
Hong Nan used in medicine
|Medicinal parts||The bark and root bark of red heather can be used as medicine.
|Medicinal properties||Pungent and bitter in taste, warm in nature. It belongs to the liver, spleen and stomach meridians.
|Functions and indications||Warming the middle and harmonizing the Qi; soothing the meridians and activating the Blood; relieving swelling and pain. Vomiting and diarrhea; vomiting of milk in children; dull stomach with little food; sprains and contusions; turning tendons; swollen feet.
|Usage and dosage||Internal use: Decoction, 10-15g.
For external use: Apply by pounding, or fumigate with decoction.
|Caution||Forbidden to be taken by pregnant women.
Hong Nan for viewing
Hong Nan has a tall, straight trunk, a compact and graceful crown of branches, natural layering, dense foliage, evergreen seasons, and a long ornamental period, making it a beautiful tree for gardens, walkways, and landscaping. There are three important ornamental periods: the spring foliage period, when the bright red buds and young leaves are bright and beautiful; the late spring flowering period, when the tiny, golden-yellow bisexual flowers cover the entire canopy; and the summer fruiting period, when the bright red stalks and blue-black berries look colorful against the rich green foliage. It is widely used as a shade tree, street tree, landscape tree, suitable for planting in open space, and can also be planted in groups or solitary in lawns. It can also absorb toxic gases in the air, and is an excellent greening species for recreational areas and industrial and mining areas.
Hongnan wood is beautiful, strong, hard and heavy, resistant to water and moisture, and is a valuable hard broadleaf species. Because of the straight texture, fine structure, light texture, moderate hardness, easy to process, not easy to deformation after drying, colorful, beautiful pattern and become our construction, bridges, furniture, plywood and other good wood. In addition to its timber use, the chemical composition of the tree is very complex, its trunk, branches, leaves, bark, seeds also have a variety of uses, the utilization of the whole tree is very high. The leaves can be extracted to make aromatic oil, which is an excellent natural fragrance, and the essential oil contains more oleoresin, which has significant antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects; the seeds can be extracted to make oil for soap and lubricants.
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