What is Chan Chu?
Chan Chu, also called Ha Ma, is an amphibian with many bumps on its body surface and poisonous glands inside, commonly known as toad, mangy monkey, mangy spur, and mangy lumpy treasure. In China, there are two kinds of toads: the Chinese giant toad and the black orbital toad. The toad puffs extracted from them as well as the toad clothes are in short supply in China. Toads are amphibious and their skin is covered with small pores that are permeable, plus they are not protected by structures such as amniotic membrane and shells from birth, making them more sensitive to the environment than other taxa, and amphibians are considered to be the weather vane for detecting environmental changes.
Chanchu is used to break the knots, move water and dampness, resolve toxins, kill worms and relieve pain. It is used for treating furuncles, hair and back, gangrene and scrofula, malignant sores, obstruction and fetish, dropsy, edema, children's chilblains, and chronic tracheitis.
Morphological characteristics of Chan Chu
a. The body of Chinese Chan Chu is stout, about 10 cm long or more, and the male is smaller. The skin of the whole body is extremely rough, except for the top of the head, which is smooth, and the rest of the body is covered with round scrofulous warts of different sizes. The head is broad, the mouth is wide, the end of the muzzle is round, and the muzzle ribs are prominent. There is no hoe bone teeth in the mouth and no teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Near the end of the muzzle there is a pair of small-shaped nostrils. The eyes are large and protruding, with a rounded tympanum posteriorly. The top of the head has large and long postauricular glands on each side. The carapace is short and wide. During the reproductive season, males are mostly black and green on the dorsal surface, with lighter markings on the side of the body; females are lighter on the dorsal surface, scrofulous creamy yellow, sometimes with oblique rows of black longitudinal spots along the side of the body from behind the eyes; the ventral surface is not smooth, creamy yellow, with brown or black fine spots. The forelimbs are long and stout, the fingers and toes are slightly flattened, and the fingers are slightly ciliated without webbing; the order of finger length is 3, 1, 4, 2; the sub-phalangeal tubercles are mostly paired, the metacarpal process is 2, and the lateral ones are large. The hind limbs are stout and short, with the tibiotarsal joint reaching the shoulder, green membrane on the side of the toes, webbing still developed, the inner metatarsal process is long and large, and the outer metatarsal process is small and round. The male forelimbs have black wedding pads on the medial 3 fingers and no vocal sac. They live in the mud, or under rocks and among grasses; in winter, they are mostly in the mud under water. They lurk during the day and go out at night or on rainy days to catch snails, slugs, ants, beetles, moths and other animals for food.
b. The black orbital Ha Ma is about 7 to 10 cm long. The dorsum has yellowish-brown and slightly brownish-red markings, and the ventral surface is lightly colored, with irregular and more prominent gray markings on the thorax and abdomen. The male has a black wedding pad on the inside of the base of the 1st and 2nd fingers. Distributed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guizhou, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, etc.
Habitat of Chan Chu
likes to hide in mud caves
, under wet rocks, in the grass and by the gutter. The skin is prone to water loss, so they tend to lurk and hide during the day and come out at night and dusk. Adult toads tend to overwinter in clusters in the mud and sand under water or on land under moist soil. They stop eating and use the liver sugar stored in their bodies to maintain a minimum metabolism, and end their hibernation only when the temperature rises to 10-20℃ the following year. It feeds on beetles, moths, snails and fly maggots at night. Breeding in captivity is easier than other frogs.
The male Chan Chu toad
midwife carries many freshly produced toad eggs on his back. It is his responsibility to protect these toad eggs from other predators.
Distribution range of Chan Chu
Hama are mainly found in all regions of the world except Madagascar, Polynesia and the poles. (Toads were originally absent from Australia and were later introduced from other regions, but reproduce so rapidly and are so poisonous that they have become one of the most serious problems in Australia today.)
Chan Chu is found all over China. From late spring to late autumn, they tend to lurk among grasses and crops during the day, or under rocks and earthen holes around dwellings and on dry land, and often crawl along roadsides and on grasses at dusk to feed. They are slow and clumsy, not good at swimming, and crawl most of the time, but they will jump in small steps and short distances when there is danger (there are exceptions, such as the rain frogs, tree frogs, and bush frogs, which are better than frogs at jumping and flexible, and the sliding-toed toads, which can jump like frogs).
a. Chanchu lives in the mud or inhabits under the rocks or among the grasses, and comes out at night to feed.
b. Hama inhabits moist grasses and is common at night or after rain. Preys on a variety of harmful insects and other small animals.
Chan Chu benefits
Chan Chu frog has the functions of detoxification and dispersion, diuretic and swelling, cardiac strength, anti-cancer, anesthesia, etc.
|Detoxification and Dispersal||Chan Chu removes toxins accumulated in the body, decomposes and eliminates lumps in the body, and is used for sores, carbuncles, swellings and sore throats.
|Diuretic and anti-swelling||Eliminate edema to reduce water retention, with a certain diuretic effect.
|Heart strengthening||Ha Ma can enhance the contraction force of human heart muscle, increase the cardiac output and stabilize the heart rate.
|Anti-cancer||Chanchu enhances the phagocytic ability of human phagocytes, effectively removes various viruses from human body, strengthens human immunity and prevents cell cancer.
|Anesthesia||After taking the medicine, a distinct local anesthesia will occur and pain and sensitivity will be minimized.
Toad contains certain toxins, and improper use will lead to adverse reactions in the body. It is best not to use it blindly, and to use it under the guidance of a professional doctor.
Type of Chan Chu
Type of Ha Ma
Bufo raddei in Chinese is Hua Bei Chan Chu (花背蟾蜍). The average body length is about 60 mm, and the largest female can reach 80 mm; the head is wider than the head length; the muzzle end is round, the muzzle ribs are conspicuous, and the cheek is inclined to the outside; the nasal spacing is slightly smaller than the eye spacing, the upper eyelid is wide and slightly larger than the eye spacing, and the tympanic membrane is conspicuous and oval.
Forelimbs thick and short; fingers thin and short, finger length order 3, 1, 2, 4, the first, 3 fingers several equal length, the fourth finger is quite short; subarticular tubercle is not paired; outer metacarpal prominence large and round, dark brown, inner metacarpal small color light. The hind limbs are short, the tibiotarsus reaches the shoulder or the posterior end of the shoulder, the left and right heels do not meet, the feet are longer than the tibia, the toes are short, the toe ends are black or dark brown; the toes are all ciliated, the bases are connected into semi-webbing; the subarticular tubercles are small and clear, the inner metatarsal process is large and dark, the outer metatarsal process is very small and light.
The male dorsal surface is more olive yellow, there are irregular spots, warts on the grain with red dots; female dorsal surface is light green, spots sauce, warts on the grain also has red dots; head and back of the dorsum often have light green ridges, the maxillary margin and limbs have dark brown lines. Both sexes are creamy white ventral surface, generally no spots, a few have black scattered small spots. Males have thicker skin, stout forelimbs, black wedding pad at the base of the inner three fingers, and a single subpharyngeal internal vocal sac.
Black orbital toad
The black orbital toad is a very cute toad with a black ring around its eyes, as if it were wearing black orbital glasses, so it is called a black orbital toad. It is very fashionable and has black toe ends, as if it is wearing black nail polish. The body is obese and about 6 to 7 cm in size. Body color varies greatly, with yellowish brown, blackish brown and grayish black, and some have irregular brownish red spots. The skin is rough, except for the top of the head, the whole body is covered with rough size warts, warts are covered with black-brown keratinous spines. The tympanic membrane is large and prominent, and there is a pair of particularly large raised glands behind the eyes, which is the postauricular line, their famous poison gland.
They are widely distributed on flatlands and at low altitudes, and are the amphibians most happy to be with humans, often found near homes, in rice paddies, open spaces, and other places. During the breeding season, which lasts from February to September, it is easy to hear a long series of rapid "gobble gobble gobble gobble ......" calls at night in spring and summer in a pond with aquatic plants on the flat ground, and they can call continuously for more than a minute in one breath. When the male toad touches the female, the call will become more urgent.
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