What is Bai Li?
Bai Li is the general bract with galls on the fruit of white oak in the family Crustaceae. Functions are strengthening the spleen and eliminating stagnation, regulating Qi, clearing fire, brightening the eyes, as well as treating hernia, chancre, fire eye red pain.
Bai Li's Latin name is Quercus fabri Hance. It is a deciduous tree or shrub-like of the family Chitidae, Quercus. Up to 20 meters high, gray-brown bark, winter buds ovate-conical, bud scales are numerous, leaf blade obovate, elliptic-obovate, leaf margin with undulate serrate or coarse blunt serrate, petiole is brownish yellow tomentose. The inflorescence axis is tomentose, the shell cup-shaped, wrapped around the nut; bracteoles ovate-lanceolate, closely arranged, in the nut long elliptic or ovate-long elliptic, the fruit umbilicus raised. flowering in April, fruiting in October.
The wood of Baili is hard, the branches can be cultivated for mushrooms, the fruit is edible, and the galls of the fruit can be used as medicine, which has high utilization value.
Morphological characteristics of Bai Li
Bai Li is a deciduous tree or shrub-like, up to 20 m tall, with gray-brown bark, deeply longitudinally fissured. Branchlets densely gray to gray-brown tomentose; winter buds ovate-conical, buds 4-6 mm long, bud scales numerous, sparsely hairy. Leaf blade obovate, ovate, elliptic-obovate, 7-15 cm long, 3-8 cm wide, apically obtuse or short acuminate, base cuneate or narrowly rounded, leaf margin undulate-serrate or coarsely obtuse serrate, both surfaces covered with gray-yellow stellate hairs when young, lateral veins 8-12 on each side, abaxially branched veins obvious; petiole 3-5 mm long, covered with brownish-yellow tomentum.
Male inflorescence 6-9 cm long, inflorescence axis tomentose, female inflorescence 1-4 cm long, bearing 2-4 flowers, shell cup-shaped, enclosing about 1/3 of the nut, 0.8-1.1 cm in diameter, 4-8 mm high; bracteoles ovate-lanceolate, closely arranged, slightly protruding at the mouth margin. Nut long ellipsoid or ovate-oblong ellipsoid, 0.7-1.2 cm in diameter, 1.7-2 cm high, glabrous, fruit umbilicus raised. Fl. in April, fr. in October.
Growth environment of Bai Li
Bai Li is distributed in Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and other provinces and regions of China. It grows in hilly and montane mixed forests at elevations of 50-1900 m.
Cultivation techniques of Bai Li
Bai Li herb
Bai Li, the same as the general broad-leaved tree seedlings, can be cultivated 1-2 years and can be planted in the nursery.
Baili is a sunny species, adaptable, both mountainous and hilly can be planted, in the soil is thin and dry place can also grow, but the soil layer is deeper, fertile sunny slope of the mountain, growth is better. Planting density, can be different depending on the purpose of operation, to timber-based, appropriate thin, 1.5 m × 1.5 m - 1.7 m × 2 m spacing; to harvest fruit or cut green manure, mainly to cultivate dwarf forests, should be densely planted, 1 m × 1 m spacing.
Under normal nurturing management, Baili not only can be fast-growing, but also can grow into a large tree. Red soil low hills of white oak, the reason for the formation of dwarf forest, in addition to natural conditions, mainly due to lack of management, too many times flat stubble, multiple generations of budding strips, so that it does not become timber. For this reason, timber, fuelwood should be zoning management, in order to play its production potential. As timber forest management, young forest during the weeding, medium-term thinning and nurturing, as well as pest control, etc., should keep up.
How to reproduce Bai Li?
Bai Li Chinese herb
Seed harvesting and seedling raising. Bai Li flowers in April-May and the nuts mature in October. Shells cup-shaped, encasing about 1/3 of the fruit, 4-8 mm high. Bracteoles ovate-lanceolate, closely spaced. Fruit oblong or ovate-oblong ellipsoid, 1.7-2 cm long, 7-12 mm in diameter. The fruits are sown as soon as they are ripe, or hidden in the cellar, or stored in moist sand, and sown the following spring. Seeds from Shaowu, seed emergence rate of 67.8%, 1,110 grams of thousand seeds, germination rate of 76%.
Seedling growth pattern
The main root is irregularly extended, thin and curved in the soil. The lateral roots are well developed and brown. Root sprouting reflects the ability of Ugandan oak to tolerate harsh environments. The main root is long, the lateral roots are few, slender, short, so in the seedling stage should be cut root transplants. Can cut off the main root length of 1/3-1/2, that is, cut that transplant, survival rate of up to 100%. This practice can encourage the main roots to sprout more than 3 thicker lateral roots, which can improve the survival rate of afforestation.
Bai Li benefits
can strengthen the spleen, eliminate stagnation and clear fire and eyes, and is a common Chinese herb
. Clinically for the treatment of hernia and fire eye stabbing pain and other symptoms, can play a good relief effect, but in the use of the general need to follow medical advice, avoid the use of private, to avoid some adverse reactions. During the use of drugs need to make good dietary adjustments, as far as possible to light and easy to digest food.
Bai Li side effects
Bai Li is a poisonous plant listed in the China Plant Atlas database. Its toxicity is due to its young buds, shoots, new branches, flowers and fruits.
It is often toxic to cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, rabbits and other animals after long term consumption in large quantities, mainly damaging the digestive tract, causing urinary disorders and secondary localized subcutaneous edema. The main symptoms of poisoning in cattle are: disorientation, trembling, loss of appetite, loss of regurgitation, severe reduction or cessation of rumen peristalsis, abdominal pain, constipation, frequent or no urination, subcutaneous edema and fluid retention in the body cavity. The mortality rate is up to 16% or more.
Application of Bai Li
Bai Li's nut is a kind of "acorn". Acorns as a kind of traditional wild woody food resources, in the food, feed, medicine and other directions of increasingly extensive research. Acorn starch is non-toxic and can meet the standard of starch consumption. In Fujian Province, China, white oak has become one of the most important acorn resources in Fujian Province, China because of its high starch content, better texture and taste, and rich nutrition. Fujian Province, Jianou, Pingnan and other places farmers have the tradition of harvesting white oak. Farmers will be harvested white oak fruit, spread out and dried, the fruit and shell bucket separation, remove insect eyes, moldy fruit. The selected fruit, put into a bucket soaked for more than 10 days, and every 1-2 days to change the water, in order to remove the astringent taste of tannins and other fruits. After soaking the fruit water grinding into a paste, according to a certain ratio of fruit and water for dilution, and then divided into cloth bags to stir, remove the fine residue, filtering precipitation, making a yellow-brown white oak starch. In Fujian Province, northwest Fujian farmers will be white oak mostly used to make tofu. In Fujian Province, east Fujian Province, farmers mostly made white oak fruit into vermicelli, especially in Pingnan County, white oak vermicelli also known as "mandarin duck noodles", is a local-specialties. The farmers in the mountainous area of Pingnan, Fujian Province, pick the white oak fruit in the mountains during the ripening period every year for processing, producing a large number of white oak vermicelli.
Bai Li wood is hard, beautiful pattern, wear and rot resistant, can be used for furniture, decoration, vehicles and other materials. The young leaves of white oak can be used to raise sericulture, and the old leaves can be used as green manure. Oak wood and its branches are very good charcoal material. The use of oak wood can be cultivated mushrooms and fungus, etc. White oak is highly adaptable, drought-resistant, infertile, versatile, and can be used as timber forest, charcoal forest, bait forest and fruit forest, etc. At the same time, because it is a deep-rooted species with a well-developed root system and a thick layer of dead branches and leaves, it can effectively improve the soil and prevent soil erosion, and is an excellent economic and ecological tree species in Fujian Province, China.
The galls of Bai Li fruit can be used as medicine to treat children's chilblains, adult hernia and acute conjunctivitis.
Bai Li has strong sprouting power, beautiful shape, and its leaves change seasonally in autumn, which has high ornamental value and can be used as a landscape tree. It can be planted in solitary, clump or group to show individual beauty or group beauty.
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